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Autor Mensaje
NotaPublicado: Mar Ene 06, 2009 8:20 pm 
Moderador COBAND
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Cursando: Maestría en Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad
Universidad: Univ. Nacional de Quilmes
Si hay algo que como estudiantes debemos ejercitar es la lectura de investigaciones. A continuación incluyo una selección de resúmenes de varias de las revistas de investigación psicológica más importantes del mundo con links para ver las revistas online. Si les interesa algún artículo pueden pedirlo y lo conseguimos =)

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology | 2008 · Vol. 95 · Issue

Focus theory of normative conduct and terror-management theory: The interactive impact of mortality salience and norm salience on social judgment.

Autores: Jonas, Eva; Martens, Andy; Niesta Kayser, Daniela; Fritsche, Immo; Sullivan, Daniel; Greenberg, Jeff

Resumen: Research on terror-management theory has shown that after mortality salience (MS) people attempt to live up to cultural values. But cultures often value very different and sometimes even contradictory standards, leading to difficulties in predicting behavior as a consequence of terror-management needs. The authors report 4 studies to demonstrate that the effect of MS on people's social judgments depends on the salience of norms. In Study 1, making salient opposite norms (prosocial vs. proself) led to reactions consistent with the activated norms following MS compared with the control condition. Study 2 showed that, in combination with a pacifism prime, MS increased pacifistic attitudes. In Study 3, making salient a conservatism/security prime led people to recommend harsher bonds for an illegal prostitute when they were reminded of death, whereas a benevolence prime counteracted this effect. In Study 4 a help prime, combined with MS, increased people's helpfulness. Discussion focuses briefly on how these findings inform both terror-management theory and the focus theory of normative conduct.

Do collectivists know themselves better than individualists? Cross-cultural studies of the holier than thou phenomenon.

Balcetis, Emily; Dunning, David; Miller, Richard L.

Collectivists know themselves better than individualists do, in that collectivists provide more accurate self-predictions of future behavior in situations with moral or altruistic overtones. In 3 studies, respondents from individualist cultures overestimated the likelihood that they would act generously in situations involving redistributing a reward (Study 1), donating money (Study 2), or avoiding rude behavior (Study 3), whereas collectivists were, in general, more accurate in their self-predictions. Both groups were roughly accurate in predicting the behavior of their peers. Collectivists were more accurate in their self-predictions than were individualists, even when both groups were sampled from the same cultural group (Study 4). Discussion centers on culturally specific motivations that may bias the accuracy of self-insight and social insight.

The generalization of attachment representations to new social situations: Predicting behavior during initial interactions with strangers.

Feeney, Brooke C.; Cassidy, Jude; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima

The idea that attachment representations are generalized to new social situations and guide behavior with unfamiliar others is central to attachment theory. However, research regarding this important theoretical postulate has been lacking in adolescence and adulthood, as most research has focused on establishing the influence of attachment representations on close relationship dynamics. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which attachment representations are predictive of adolescents' initial behavior when meeting and interacting with new peers. High school adolescents (N = 135) participated with unfamiliar peers from another school in 2 social support interactions that were videotaped and coded by independent observers. Results indicated that attachment representations (assessed through interview and self-report measures) were predictive of behaviors exhibited during the discussions. Theoretical implications of the results and contributions to the existing literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)
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American Psychologist | 2008 · Vol. 63 · Issue 9

Reporting standards for research in psychology: Why do we need them? What might they be?

APA Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards

In anticipation of the impending revision of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA's Publications and Communications Board formed the Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) and charged it to provide the board with background and recommendations on information that should be included in manuscripts submitted to APA journals that report (a) new data collections and (b) meta-analyses. The JARS Group reviewed efforts in related fields to develop standards and sought input from other knowledgeable groups. The resulting recommendations contain (a) standards for all journal articles, (b) more specific standards for reports of studies with experimental manipulations or evaluations of interventions using research designs involving random or nonrandom assignment, and (c) standards for articles reporting meta-analyses. The JARS Group anticipated that standards for reporting other research designs (e.g., observational studies, longitudinal studies) would emerge over time. This report also (a) examines societal developments that have encouraged researchers to provide more details when reporting their studies, (b) notes important differences between requirements, standards, and recommendations for reporting, and (c) examines benefits and obstacles to the development and implementation of reporting standards.
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Behavioral Neuroscience | 2008 · Vol. 122 · Issue 6

Conditioning-specific reflex modification of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response and heart rate: Behavioral rules, neural substrates, and potential applications to posttraumatic stress disorder.

Burhans, Lauren B.; Smith-Bell, Carrie; Schreurs, Bernard G.

Interest in classical conditioning is usually focused on anticipatory responses to a stimulus associated with a significant event, and it is assumed that responses to the event itself are reflexive, involuntary, and relatively invariant. However, there is compelling evidence that both the rabbit nictitating membrane response (NMR) and heart rate response (HR), well-known reflexive reactions to aversive events, can change quite dramatically as a function of learning when measured in the absence of the conditioned stimulus. In the case of NMR conditioning, a simple blink is transformed into a larger and more complex response. For HR conditioning, reflexive heart rate acceleration can actually change to heart rate deceleration. In both cases, the reflex comes to resemble the conditioned response and follows some of the same behavioral laws. This change in response to the aversive event itself or weaker forms of that event is called conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM). CRM may force us to reevaluate the behavioral and neural consequences of classical conditioning and may have important consequences for the treatment of conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder.

Anticipatory stress influences decision making under explicit risk conditions.

Starcke, Katrin; Wolf, Oliver T.; Markowitsch, Hans J.; Brand, Matthias

Recent research has suggested that stress may affect memory, executive functioning, and decision making on the basis of emotional feedback processing. The current study examined whether anticipatory stress affects decision making measured with the Game of Dice Task (GDT), a decision-making task with explicit and stable rules that taps both executive functioning and feedback learning. The authors induced stress in 20 participants by having them anticipate giving a public speech and also examined 20 comparison subjects. The authors assessed the level of stress with questionnaires and endocrine markers (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase), both revealing that speech anticipation led to increased stress. Results of the GDT showed that participants under stress scored significantly lower than the comparison group and that GDT performance was negatively correlated with the increase of cortisol. Our results indicate that stress can lead to disadvantageous decision making even when explicit and stable information about outcome contingencies is provided.
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Journal of Psychotherapy Integration | 2008 · Vol. 18 · Issue 4

Psychotherapy in Argentina: Theoretical orientation and clinical practice.

Muller, Felipe J.

This article focuses on the relationship between theoretical orientation and clinical practice in Argentina. Five hundred twenty-five psychotherapists were surveyed in the city of Buenos Aires and the provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, La Pampa, Neuquén, Chubut, and Rio Negro. Psychoanalysis was chosen by 53.1% of the psychotherapists as the main theory used in their clinical practice. Integrationists made up 39.8% of the sample and represented the 2nd most important group. Within the integrationist group, psychoanalysis was mentioned by 63.2% as the main or base theory, followed by 12.9% mentioning cognitive theory. A longitudinal analysis shows how the trend toward integration of the different theories has grown over the years. These results reveal the importance of psychoanalysis and the trend toward integration within clinical practice in Argentina.
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Cognition & Emotion | 2009 · Vol. 23 · Issue 1

The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review

Sander L. Koole

The present article reviews modern research on the psychology of emotion regulation. Emotion regulation determines the offset of emotional responding and is thus distinct from emotional sensitivity, which determines the onset of emotional responding. Among the most viable categories for classifying emotion-regulation strategies are the targets and functions of emotion regulation. The emotion-generating systems that are targeted in emotion regulation include attention, knowledge, and bodily responses. The functions of emotion regulation include satisfying hedonic needs, supporting specific goal pursuits, and facilitating the global personality system. Emotion-regulation strategies are classified in terms of their targets and functions and relevant empirical work is reviewed. Throughout this review, emotion regulation emerges as one of the most far-ranging and influential processes at the interface of cognition and emotion

Information integration and emotion: How do anxiety sensitivity and expectancy combine to determine social anxiety?

Philip J. Moore; Enid Chung; Rolf A. Peterson; Martin A. Katzman; Monica Vermani

Relatively little is known about the integration of people's fear-related dispositions and their expectations about stressful events. This research used information integration theory to examine how participants' anxiety sensitivity and event expectancy are integrated to determine their social anxiety. Three studies were conducted—two with university students and one with anxiety clinic patients—in which participants were presented with multiple scenarios of a socially embarrassing event, each representing a different degree of event probability, from which subjective expectancies were derived. Independent variables included anxiety sensitivity (low, moderate, high) and event expectancy (low, medium, high, no probability information). Participants were asked to indicate their anxiety (dependent measure) in each expectancy condition in this 3 times 4 mixed, quasi-experimental design. The results of all three studies strongly suggest that anxiety sensitivity and event expectancy are integrated additively to produce social anxiety. Additional results and their implications for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders are also discussed.
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Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica | 2008 · Vol. 10 · Núm. 3

Influencia de la Reactancia Comportamental en la Interrupción Prematura del Tratamiento

Chappa, Herbert J.; Dowd E. Thomas

Los resultados del tratamiento son objeto de particular interés en la práctica psicológica ypsiquiátrica. Las variables que participan están relacionadas con el terapeuta, con las técnicas, y con el paciente. Las variables del paciente más frecuentemente invocadas son las demográficas, la motivación y la personalidad. Una variable poco estudiada es la reactancia definida por Brehm (Brehm, 1966; Brehm y Brehm, 1981) como un estado motivacional dirigido a la restitución de comportamientos autónomos de la persona cuando éstos resultan amenazados. Con el objetivo de medir la reactancia psicológica Dowd, Milne y Wise (1991) desarrollaron la escala PAI (Personal Actitud Inventory. En un trabajo anterior se presentaron los datos normativos del PAI (Chappa y col. 1999), encontrándose muy similares a los informados por Dowd, Milne y Wise en su trabajo original (1991). En esta presentación se informa sobre las relaciones entre la Reactancia -estimada con el PAI en español, la Asertividad -evaluada con la escala de Rathus- y la Terminación Prematura del Tratamiento (PREM). Se estudiaron 136 pacientes ambulatorios consecutivos, que solicitaron atención en el CETEM (Instituto de Terapias Cognitivas e Integrativas) en La Plata, Argentina. Las edades de los pacientes fluctuaron entre 15 y 65 años, con una media de 35.4 y un DS de 12.3. Los resultados señalan una correlación positiva entre Reactancia Psicológica Verbal y Asertividad en la muestra de pacientes, en concordancia con los resultados de las muestras no-clínicas (Chappa y col. 1999). La reactancia verbal ha sido señalada como positivamente relacionada con la mejoría del paciente. La oposición verbal, en este sentido, se considera beneficiosa (Seibel y Dowd, 1999). En los pacientes que interrumpen prematuramente el tratamiento en cambio, se encontró una relación inversa. En este grupo la Reactancia Psicológica Comportamental resultó la más intensamente correlacionada con Asertividad. Este hallazgo puede considerarse como una evidencia adicional a las afirmaciones de Seibel y Dowd (1999) en el sentido que es la Reactancia Comportamental la relacionada con la terminación prematura del tratamiento.

Conductas y Cogniciones Relacionadas con los Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria en Estudiantes Universitarios

Góngora Vanesa C.; Casullo Maria Martina

El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar conductas, cogniciones específicas relacionadas con los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) y creencias básicas en estudiantes universitarios. Participaron 449 estudiantes de Psicología (13.2% hombres y 86.8% mujeres). Se administraron: una encuesta sociodemográfica y de síntomas alimentarios, el cuestionario de esquemas SQ, el inventario ICA de conductas alimentarias y el cuestionario MAC-R de cogniciones. Los datos de los inventarios señalaron la presencia de sintomatología importante de TCA en un 10% de la muestra. Las mujeres presentaron conductas y cogniciones específicas de los TCA más severas que los varones. Aquellos estudiantes que realizaron un tratamiento previo por TCA exhibieron mayores conductas y mayor severidad en las cogniciones que aquellos que no realizaron tal tratamiento. Se encontró una fuerte asociación entre conductas y cogniciones específicas de los TCA en esta población.
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Cuadernos de Neuropsicología | 2008 · Vol. 2 · Núm. 2

Siete de cada diez, o el verdadero factor de impacto

Polanco, Roberto

En breve, comenzará a cobrar cada vez más importancia, contar por parte de las revistas seriadas de psicología, con un índice de factor de impacto (FI), así como la necesidad de que las mismas figuren en bases de datos a nivel mundial. El factor de impacto es el número de veces que se cita por término medio un artículo publicado en una revista determina este calculo lo realiza el Instituto de Información Científica ISI (siglas en inglés), conocido actualmente como Thomson ISI. Por medio de este indicador se mide tanto la productividad de una determinada revista como la de los autores, medida muy importante a la hora de acceder a titularidades académicas y fondos de investigación.


"El mejor resultado es producto de que todos en el grupo hagan lo mejor para sí mismos y para el grupo"

Asociación para el Avance de la Ciencia Psicológica (AACP) · PSIENCIA. Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencia Psicológica · Campus Virtual AACP

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